BAGPIPE MUSIC


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Scotland has its own typical musical instrument, the bagpipes. The bagpipe was known to the ancient civilizations of the Near East. It was probably introduced into Britain by the Romans. In Scotland the bagpipe was first recorded in the 16th century during the reign of James I, who was a very good player, and did much to make it popular. It has been considered a national Scottish instrument. Even now it is still associated with Scotland. The sound of the bagpipes is very stirring. The old Highland clans and later the Highland regiments used to go into battle to the sound of the bagpipes. The bagpipe consists of a reed pipe, the "chanter", and a wind bag which provides a regular supply of air to the pipe. The wind pipe is filled either from the mouth or by a bellows which the player works with his arm. The chanter has a number of holes or keys by means of which the tune is played. There are essentially two types of music played on the Highland pipes: the march, which were composed for military or social events, and the piobaireachd (pronounced pee-broch) which is the 'symphony music' of the pipes. The music of the Scottish Highland Bagpipes or Great Highland Bagpipes is popularly known as highland bagpipe music. The Scottish highland bagpipe music is one of the most famous Celtic varieties of music. Scotland offers many opportunities to hear bagpipe concerts, competitions, and festival performances.













FLAGS



THE SALTIRE

The Scottish flag is the cross of St. Andrew, also known as the Saltire. It is said to be one of the oldest national flags of any country, dating back at least to the 12th century. the saltire originated in a battle in the Dark Ages between the Picts and Scots on one side and the Angles of Northumbria on the other. Around the time of the 8th century, an army of Picts and Scots under King Angus found themselves surrounded by a force of Angles under their leader Athelstan. King Angus prayed God and the saints. That night Saint Andrew appeared to the King and promised them victory. The next day, when battle began, the vision of the white saltire was seen by all in the blue sky. This encouraged the Picts and Scots and frightened their adversaries that a victory was won.



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LION RAMPANT
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The Lion Rampant flag is also called the Royal Flag of Scotland - having been used by the Kings of Scotland, with the first King to have done so being Alexander II (1214-1249).It is much older than the St Andrew's flag and should now only be used by the Queen in her role as the Queen of Scotland.The Rampant Lion flag flies over the offices of the Secretary of State for Scotland.


WHISKY

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Alcohol made from grain (malted or not) which is produced in Scotland is called WHISKY.

There are two kinds of whisky on the market: the first one, blended whisky is the most popular one. The best known brands are J&B, Johnnie Walker, Famous Grouse, Chivas Regal, Dimple, and others. A blended whisky is a mix of malts from several different distilleries and grain whisky. The proportion of grain whisky is important to determine the quality of the final product. The advantage of blend whisky is that it's quality is constant over the years Scotch whisky can be made from barley or grain, but the best Scotch whiskies are single malt. A Single Malt Scotch Whisky is the product of one specific distillery and has not been mixed with whisky from any other distilleries.Not long time ago single malt whisky was sold only in Scotland, because of its lack of standardisation. Each distillery (there are about 100 active distilleries in Scotland nowadays) has its own style and each whisky is different from all others. Whisky is a great industry in Scotland. Scotch whisky is vital to the U.K. It is one of the top export earners, with exports over £2.2 billion. It is the backbone of the U.K. food and drinks industry, contributing some £1.8 billion to the trade balance. Without it the trade deficit in this sector would increase by 40%.

THE TARTAN



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Tartans have become synonymous with Scotland and Scottish clans and families. Tartan is a pattern consisting of criss-crossed horizontal and vertical bands in multiple colours. Tartans originated in woven cloth, but are now used in many other materials. Tartan has an ancient history. The earliest known in tartan in Scotland can be dated to the third or fourth century AD. Originally, tartan symbolic had no names and no symbolic meaning, but it became extremely popular in Scottish Highland Culture. After the industrialization, when tartans began to take on names associated with clans and prominent families, people started to collect and categorize them. The most well known are the clan tartans, but they can represent many different things like families, towns, individuals and events. There are over 4000 unique sort of tartan designs nowadays.






THE KILT



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The kilt is a traditional garment of modern
Scottish and Celtic (more specifically Gaelic) culture typically worn by men


The Scotman´s pride and joy was invented by an Englishman Thomas Rawlinson, around 1727 .He invented the kilt because the average Scotsman was so poor, he couldn't afford a pair of pants. As it happened, the kilt was an instant success. The next turning point in the history of the kilt came in 1745, when the British government wanted to ban the kilt because the English spent the entire nineteenth century trying to make people the world over dress, speak, and eat just like them and the Scottish kilt was too different. As soon as the kilt was banned everyone wanted to wear one. Almost overnight the lowly kilt became the revered national costume of the Scottish people.

There are two types of kilts : the Feileadh Mor (also known as Geat Kilt or Breacan Feile) and the Feileadh Beg which is the more common type of kilt. Kilting Tartan comes in three weights; lightweight, medium weight and heavyweight.





THE THISTLE


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Alongside tartan, the thistle is perhaps one of the most remarkable symbols of all things in Scotland. It can be seen all over Scotland nowadays and there are a lot of products, services and organisations that promote it. The thorns of pickly purple thistle symbolise both evil and protection. The thistle has been an important Scottish symbol for more than 500 years.





LEGEND The Scottish thistle is the national emblem of Scotland. It was adopted as the Emblem of Scotland during the rein of Alexander III (1249-1286).Legend says that in Army of Norway´s King Haakon landed on the Coast of Largs to surprise the sleeping Scottish Clansmen at night. In order to move more quietly, the Norsemen removed their footwear. They went on bare feet toward the unsuspecting Scottish army. Suddenly, a sharp cry of pain shattered the stillness: A Norse soldier had stepped on a thistle. Thus alerted to the surprise attach, the Scots sprang into action and drove the invaders from their shores. The first use of the Thistle as a royal symbol of Scotland was on silver coins issued by James III in 1470.





THE FLOWER OF SCOTLAND

The final symbol most countries have is a song. Scotland currently does not have an official song but one the most important song is Flower of Scotland. Flower of Scotland is the unofficial Scottish national anthem that is first performed by The Corries.Flower of Scotland is played at rugby and football games. Flower of Scotland was composed at 69 Northumberland Street, Edinburgh .

THE FLOWER OF SCOTLAND
WORDS AND MUSIC BY ROY WILLIAMSON ( 1936-1990)
O Flower of Scotland,
When will we see,
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That fought and died for,
Your wee bit Hill and Glen,
And stood against him,
Proud Edward's Army,
And sent him homeward,
Tae think again.
The hills are bare now,
And autumn leaves lie thick and still,
O'er land that is lost now,
Which those so dearly held,
And stood against him,
Proud Edward's Army,
And sent him homeward,
Tae think again.
Those days are past now,
And in the past
They must remain,
But we can still rise now,
And be the nation again,
That stood against him,
Proud Edward's Army,
And sent him homeward,
Tae think again.